Lisinopril and Hydrochlorthiazide
REMEDYREPACK INC.

LISINOPRIL AND HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE - lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablet 
REMEDYREPACK INC.

1BOXED WARNING

When used in pregnancy during the second and third trimesters, ACE inhibitors can cause injury and even death to the developing fetus.When pregnancy is detected, lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets should be discontinued as soon as possible. (See WARNINGS,Pregnancy,Lisinopril,Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality.)

1DESCRIPTION

Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide combines an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril, and a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide. Lisinopril, a synthetic peptide derivative, is an oral long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is chemically described as (S)-1-[N2-(1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl)-L-lysyl]-L-proline dihydrate. Its molecular formula is C21H31N3O5and its structural formula is:

MM1


Lisinopril is a white, crystalline powder, with a molecular weight of 441.52. It is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in methanol, and practically insoluble in ethanol.
Hydrochlorothiazide is 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine- 7-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxide. Its molecular formula is C7H8ClN3O4S2 and its structural formula is:

MM2


Hydrochlorothiazide is a white, or practically white, crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 297.73, which is slightly soluble in water, but freely soluble in sodium hydroxide solution.
Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets are available for oral use in three tablet combinations of lisinopril with hydrochlorothiazide: lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 10/12.5 mg, containing 10 mg lisinopril and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide, lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 20/12.5 mg, containing 20 mg lisinopril and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide and lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 20/25 mg, containing 20 mg lisinopril and 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide.
In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, croscarmellose sodium and magnesium stearate. Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 10/12.5 mg and 20/25 mg also contain red and yellow ferric oxides.

2CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Lisinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide
As a result of its diuretic effects, hydrochlorothiazide increases plasma renin activity, increases aldosterone secretion, and decreases serum potassium. Administration of lisinopril blocks the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis and tends to reverse the potassium loss associated with the diuretic.
In clinical studies, the extent of blood pressure reduction seen with the combination of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide was approximately additive. The lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide 10/12.5 mg combination worked equally well in Black and Caucasian patients. The lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide 20/12.5 mg and lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide 20/25 mg combinations appeared somewhat less effective in Black patients, but relatively few Black patients were studied. In most patients, the antihypertensive effect of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide was sustained for at least 24 hours.
In a randomized, controlled comparison, the mean antihypertensive effects of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 20/12.5 mg and lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 20/25 mg were similar, suggesting that many patients who respond adequately to the latter combination may be controlled with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 20/12.5 mg. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Concomitant administration of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide has little or no effect on the bioavailability of either drug. The combination tablet is bioequivalent to concomitant administration of the separate entities.

Lisinopril

Mechanism of Action

ACE is identical to kininase, an enzyme that degrades bradykinin. Whether increased levels of bradykinin, a potent vasodepressor peptide, play a role in the therapeutic effects of lisinopril remains to be elucidated.
While the mechanism through which lisinopril lowers blood pressure is believed to be primarily suppression of the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system, lisinopril is antihypertensive even in patients with low-renin hypertension. Although lisinopril was antihypertensive in all races studied, Black hypertensive patients (usually a low-renin hypertensive population) had a smaller average response to lisinopril monotherapy than non-Black patients.

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism
Following oral administration of lisinopril, peak serum concentrations occur within about 7 hours. Declining serum concentrations exhibit a prolonged terminal phase which does not contribute to drug accumulation. This terminal phase probably represents saturable binding to ACE and is not proportional to dose. Lisinopril does not appear to be bound to other serum proteins.
Lisinopril does not undergo metabolism and is excreted unchanged entirely in the urine. Based on urinary recovery, the mean extent of absorption of lisinopril is approximately 25%, with large intersubject variability (6-60%) at all doses tested (5 to 80 mg). Lisinopril absorption is not influenced by the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract.
Upon multiple dosing, lisinopril exhibits an effective half-life of accumulation of 12 hours.
Impaired renal function decreases elimination of lisinopril, which is excreted principally through the kidneys, but this decrease becomes clinically important only when the glomerular filtration rate is below 30 mL/min. Above this glomerular filtration rate, the elimination half-life is little changed. With greater impairment, however, peak and trough lisinopril levels increase, time to peak concentration increases and time to attain steady state is prolonged. Older patients, on average, have (approximately doubled) higher blood levels and area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) than younger patients. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) Lisinopril can be removed by hemodialysis.
Studies in rats indicate that lisinopril crosses the blood-brain barrier poorly. Multiple doses of lisinopril in rats do not result in accumulation in any tissues. However, milk of lactating rats contains radioactivity following administration of 14C lisinopril. By whole body autoradiography, radioactivity was found in the placenta following administration of labeled drug to pregnant rats, but none was found in the fetuses.

Pharmacodynamics
Administration of lisinopril to patients with hypertension results in a reduction of supine and standing blood pressure to about the same extent with no compensatory tachycardia. Symptomatic postural hypotension is usually not observed although it can occur and should be anticipated in volume and/or salt-depleted patients. (See WARNINGS.)
In most patients studied, onset of antihypertensive activity was seen at one hour after oral administration of an individual dose of lisinopril, with peak reduction of blood pressure achieved by 6 hours.
In some patients achievement of optimal blood pressure reduction may require 2 to 4 weeks of therapy.
At recommended single daily doses, antihypertensive effects have been maintained for at least 24 hours after dosing, although the effect at 24 hours was substantially smaller than the effect 6 hours after dosing.
In hemodynamic studies in patients with essential hypertension, blood pressure reduction was accompanied by a reduction in peripheral arterial resistance with little or no change in cardiac output and in heart rate. In a study in 9 hypertensive patients, following administration of lisinopril, there was an increase in mean renal blood flow that was not significant. Data from several small studies are inconsistent with respect to the effect of lisinopril on glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive patients with normal renal function, but suggest that changes, if any, are not large.
In patients with renovascular hypertension lisinopril has been shown to be well tolerated and effective in controlling blood pressure (see PRECAUTIONS).

Hydrochlorothiazide
The mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of thiazides is unknown. Thiazides do not usually affect normal blood pressure.
Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic and antihypertensive. It affects the distal renal tubular mechanism of electrolyte reabsorption. Hydrochlorothiazide increases excretion of sodium and chloride in approximately equivalent amounts. Natriuresis may be accompanied by some loss of potassium and bicarbonate.
After oral use diuresis begins within 2 hours, peaks in about 4 hours and lasts about 6 to 12 hours.
Hydrochlorothiazide is not metabolized but is eliminated rapidly by the kidney. When plasma levels have been followed for at least 24 hours, the plasma half-life has been observed to vary between 5.6 and 14.8 hours. At least 61% of the oral dose is eliminated unchanged within 24 hours. Hydrochlorothiazide crosses the placental but not the blood-brain barrier.

3INDICATIONS & USAGE

Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension.
These fixed-dose combinations are not indicated for initial therapy (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
In using lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets, consideration should be given to the fact that an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, has caused agranulocytosis, particularly in patients with renal impairment or collagen vascular disease, and that available data are insufficient to show that lisinopril does not have a similar risk. (See WARNINGS.)
In considering use of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets, it should be noted that Black patients receiving ACE inhibitors have been reported to have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to non-Blacks. (See WARNINGS, Head and Neck Angioedema.)

4CONTRAINDICATIONS

Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets are contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product and in patients with a history of angioedema related to previous treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and in patients with hereditary or idiopathic angioedema. Because of the hydrochlorothiazide component, this product is contraindicated in patients with anuria or hypersensitivity to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.

5WARNINGS

General

Lisinopril
Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions
Presumably because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious.
Head and Neck Angioedema
Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx has been reported rarely in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, including lisinopril. This may occur at any time during treatment. ACE inhibitors have been associated with a higher rate of angioedema in Black than in non-Black patients. In such cases lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets should be promptly discontinued and appropriate therapy and monitoring should be provided until complete and sustained resolution of signs and symptoms has occurred. Even in those instances where swelling of only the tongue is involved, without respiratory distress, patients may require prolonged observation since treatment with antihistamines and corticosteroids may not be sufficient. Very rarely, fatalities have been reported due to angioedema associated with laryngeal edema or tongue edema. Patients with involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx are likely to experience airway obstruction, especially those with a history of airway surgery. Where there is involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx, likely to cause airway obstruction, subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1000 (0.3 mL to 0.5 mL) and/or measures necessary to ensure a patent airway, should be promptly provided. (SeeADVERSE REACTIONS.)
Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE-inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor (see also INDICATIONS AND USAGE and CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Intestinal Angioedema
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization
Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions. In the same patients, these reactions were avoided when ACE inhibitors were temporarily withheld, but they reappeared upon inadvertent rechallenge.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane Exposure
Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.
Hypotension and Related Effects
Excessive hypotension was rarely seen in uncomplicated hypertensive patients but is a possible consequence of lisinopril use in salt/volume-depleted persons, such as those treated vigorously with diuretics or patients on dialysis. (See PRECAUTIONS,Drug Interactions and ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Syncope has been reported in 0.8% of patients receiving lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets. In patients with hypertension receiving lisinopril alone, the incidence of syncope was 0.1%. The overall incidence of syncope may be reduced by proper titration of the individual components. (See PRECAUTIONS,DrugInteractions,ADVERSE REACTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
In patients with severe congestive heart failure, with or without associated renal insufficiency, excessive hypotension has been observed and may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia, and rarely with acute renal failure and/or death. Because of the potential fall in blood pressure in these patients, therapy should be started under very close medical supervision. Such patients should be followed closely for the first 2 weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of lisinopril and/or diuretic is increased. Similar considerations apply to patients with ischemic heart or cerebrovascular disease in whom an excessive fall in blood pressure could result in a myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident.
If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in supine position and, if necessary, receive an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further doses which usually can be given without difficulty once the blood pressure has increased after volume expansion.
Neutropenia/Agranulocytosis
Another angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, has been shown to cause agranulocytosis and bone marrow depression, rarely in uncomplicated patients but more frequently in patients with renal impairment, especially if they also have a collagen vascular disease. Available data from clinical trials of lisinopril are insufficient to show that lisinopril does not cause agranulocytosis at similar rates. Marketing experience has revealed rare cases of neutropenia and bone marrow depression in which a causal relationship to lisinopril cannot be excluded. Periodic monitoring of white blood cell counts in patients with collagen vascular disease and renal disease should be considered.
Hepatic Failure
Rarely, ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice or hepatitis and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis, and (sometimes) death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical follow-up.

Hydrochlorothiazide
Thiazides should be used with caution in severe renal disease. In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function.
Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma.
Sensitivity reactions may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma.
The possibility of exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus has been reported.
Lithium generally should not be given with thiazides (see PRECAUTIONS,Drug Interactions,Lisinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide).

Pregnancy

Lisinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide

When used in pregnancy during the second and third trimesters, ACE inhibitors can cause injury and even death to the developing fetus. When pregnancy is detected, lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets should be discontinued as soon as possible. (See Lisinopril, Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality, below).

Lisinopril
Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality
ACE inhibitors can cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and death when administered to pregnant women. Several dozen cases have been reported in the world literature. When pregnancy is detected, ACE inhibitors should be discontinued as soon as possible.
In a published retrospective epidemiological study, infants whose mothers had taken an ACE inhibitor drug during the first trimester of pregnancy appeared to have an increased risk of major congenital malformations compared with infants whose mothers had not undergone first trimester exposure to ACE inhibitor drugs. The number of cases of birth defects is small and the findings of this study have not yet been repeated.
These adverse effects do not appear to have resulted from intrauterine ACE-inhibitor exposure that has been limited to the first trimester. Mothers whose embryos and fetuses are exposed to ACE inhibitors only during the first trimester should be so informed. Nonetheless, when patients become pregnant, physicians should make every effort to discontinue the use of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets as soon as possible.
Rarely (probably less often than once in every thousand pregnancies), no alternative to ACE inhibitors will be found. In these rare cases, the mothers should be apprised of the potential hazards to their fetuses, and serial ultrasound examinations should be performed to assess the intraamniotic environment.
If oligohydramnios is observed, lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets should be discontinued unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Contraction stress testing (CST), a non-stress test (NST), or biophysical profiling (BPP) may be appropriate, depending upon the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury.
Infants with histories of in utero exposure to ACE inhibitors should be closely observed for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria occurs, attention should be directed toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusion or dialysis may be required as means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Lisinopril, which crosses the placenta, has been removed from neonatal circulation by peritoneal dialysis with some clinical benefit, and theoretically may be removed by exchange transfusion, although there is no experience with the latter procedure.
No teratogenic effects of lisinopril were seen in studies of pregnant mice, rats, and rabbits. On a body surface area basis, the doses used were up to 55 times, 33 times, and 0.15 times, respectively, the MRHDD.

Hydrochlorothiazide
Studies in which hydrochlorothiazide was orally administered to pregnant mice and rats during their respective periods of major organogenesis at doses up to 3000 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively, provided no evidence of harm to the fetus. These doses are more than 150 times the MRHDD on a body surface area basis. Thiazides cross the placental barrier and appear in cord blood. There is a risk of fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia and possibly other adverse reactions that have occurred in adults.

6PRECAUTIONS

General

Lisinopril
Aortic Stenosis/Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
As with all vasodilators, lisinopril should be given with caution to patients with obstruction in the outflow tract of the left ventricle.
Impaired Renal Function
As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. In patients with severe congestive heart failure whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, including lisinopril, may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and rarely with acute renal failure and/or death.
In hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine may occur. Experience with another angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests that these increases are usually reversible upon discontinuation of lisinopril and/or diuretic therapy. In such patients renal function should be monitored during the first few weeks of therapy.
Some hypertensive patients with no apparent pre-existing renal vascular disease have developed increases in blood urea and serum creatinine, usually minor and transient, especially when lisinopril has been given concomitantly with a diuretic. This is more likely to occur in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. Dosage reduction of lisinopril and/or discontinuation of the diuretic may be required.
Evaluation of the hypertensive patient should always include assessment of renal function. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Hyperkalemia
In clinical trials hyperkalemia (serum potassium greater than 5.7 mEq/L) occurred in approximately 1.4% of hypertensive patients treated with lisinopril plus hydrochlorothiazide. In most cases these were isolated values which resolved despite continued therapy. Hyperkalemia was not a cause of discontinuation of therapy. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes. Hyperkalemia can cause serious, sometimes fatal, arrhythmias. Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets should be used cautiously, if at all, with these agents and with frequent monitoring of serum potassium. (See Drug Interactions.)
Cough
Presumably due to the inhibition of the degradation of endogenous bradykinin, persistent nonproductive cough has been reported with all ACE inhibitors, always resolving after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cough.
Surgery/Anesthesia
In patients undergoing major surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, lisinopril may block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be due to this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion.

Hydrochlorothiazide
Periodic determination of serum electrolytes to detect possible electrolyte imbalance should be performed at appropriate intervals.
All patients receiving thiazide therapy should be observed for clinical signs of fluid or electrolyte imbalance: namely, hyponatremia, hypochloremic alkalosis, and hypokalemia. Serum and urine electrolyte determinations are particularly important when the patient is vomiting excessively or receiving parenteral fluids. Warning signs or symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance, irrespective of cause, include dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, confusion, seizures, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting.
Hypokalemia may develop, especially with brisk diuresis, when severe cirrhosis is present, or after prolonged therapy.
Interference with adequate oral electrolyte intake will also contribute to hypokalemia. Hypokalemia may cause cardiac arrhythmia and may also sensitize or exaggerate the response of the heart to the toxic effects of digitalis (e.g., increased ventricular irritability). Because lisinopril reduces the production of aldosterone, concomitant therapy with lisinopril attenuates the diuretic-induced potassium loss (see Drug Interactions,Agents Increasing Serum Potassium).
Although any chloride deficit is generally mild and usually does not require specific treatment, except under extraordinary circumstances (as in liver disease or renal disease), chloride replacement may be required in the treatment of metabolic alkalosis.
Hyperuricemia may occur or frank gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazide therapy.
In diabetic patients dosage adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents may be required. Hyperglycemia may occur with thiazide diuretics. Thus latent diabetes mellitus may become manifest during thiazide therapy.
The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the postsympathectomy patient.
If progressive renal impairment becomes evident consider withholding or discontinuing diuretic therapy.
Thiazides may decrease urinary calcium excretion. Thiazides may cause intermittent and slight elevation of serum calcium in the absence of known disorders of calcium metabolism. Marked hypercalcemia may be evidence of hidden hyperparathyroidism. Thiazides should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function.
Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be associated with thiazide diuretic therapy.

Information for Patients
Angioedema
Angioedema, including laryngeal edema, may occur at any time during treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, including lisinopril. Patients should be so advised and told to report immediately any signs or symptoms suggesting angioedema (swelling of face, extremities, eyes, lips, tongue, difficulty in swallowing or breathing) and to take no more drug until they have consulted with the prescribing physician.
Symptomatic Hypotension
Patients should be cautioned to report lightheadedness especially during the first few days of therapy. If actual syncope occurs, the patients should be told to discontinue the drug until they have consulted with the prescribing physician.
Hyperkalemia
Patients should be told not to use salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting their physician.
Neutropenia
Patients should be told to report promptly any indication of infection (e.g., sore throat, fever) which may be a sign of neutropenia.
Pregnancy
Female patients of childbearing age should be told about the consequences of exposure to ACE inhibitors during pregnancy. These patients should be asked to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible.
NOTE: As with many other drugs, certain advice to patients being treated with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets is warranted. This information is intended to aid in the safe and effective use of this medication. It is not a disclosure of all possible adverse or intended effects.

Drug Interactions

Lisinopril
Hypotension - Patients on Diuretic Therapy
Patients on diuretics, and especially those in whom diuretic therapy was recently instituted, may occasionally experience an excessive reduction of blood pressure after initiation of therapy with lisinopril. The possibility of hypotensive effects with lisinopril can be minimized by either discontinuing the diuretic or increasing the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with lisinopril. If it is necessary to continue the diuretic, initiate therapy with lisinopril at a dose of 5 mg daily, and provide close medical supervision after the initial dose for at least 2 hours and until blood pressure has stabilized for at least an additional hour. (See WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) When a diuretic is added to the therapy of a patient receiving lisinopril, an additional antihypertensive effect is usually observed. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Inhibitors
Reports suggest that NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, including lisinopril. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs or selective COX-2 inhibitors concomitantly with ACE inhibitors.
In some patients with compromised renal function (e.g., elderly patients or patients who are volume-depleted, including those on diuretic therapy) who are being treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, the co-administration of angiotensin II receptor antagonists or ACE inhibitors, may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
These interactions should be considered in patients taking NSAIDS including selective COX-2 inhibitors concomitantly with diuretics and angiotensin II antagonists or ACE inhibitors. Therefore, the combination should be administered with caution, especially in the elderly.
Other Agents
Lisinopril has been used concomitantly with nitrates and/or digoxin without evidence of clinically significant adverse interactions. No meaningful clinically important pharmacokinetic interactions occurred when lisinopril was used concomitantly with propranolol, digoxin, or hydrochlorothiazide. The presence of food in the stomach does not alter the bioavailability of lisinopril.
Agents Increasing Serum Potassium
Lisinopril attenuates potassium loss caused by thiazide-type diuretics. Use of lisinopril with potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene, or amiloride), potassium supplements, or potassium-containing salt substitutes may lead to significant increases in serum potassium. Therefore, if concomitant use of these agents is indicated, because of demonstrated hypokalemia, they should be used with caution and with frequent monitoring of serum potassium.
Lithium
Lithium toxicity has been reported in patients receiving lithium concomitantly with drugs which cause elimination of sodium, including ACE inhibitors. Lithium toxicity was usually reversible upon discontinuation of lithium and the ACE inhibitor. It is recommended that serum lithium levels be monitored frequently if lisinopril is administered concomitantly with lithium.
Gold
Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets.

Hydrochlorothiazide
When administered concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics.
Alcohol, Barbiturates, or Narcotics
Potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur.
Antidiabetic Drugs (Oral Agents and Insulin)
Dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required.
Other Antihypertensive Drugs
Additive effect or potentiation.
Cholestyramine and Colestipol Resins
Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85% and 43%, respectively.
Corticosteroids, ACTH
Intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia.
Pressor Amines (e.g., Norepinephrine)
Possible decreased response to pressor amines but not sufficient to preclude their use.
Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Nondepolarizing (e.g., Tubocurarine)
Possible increased responsiveness to the muscle relaxant.
Lithium
Should not generally be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity. Refer to the package insert for lithium preparations before use of such preparations with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets.
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
In some patients, the administration of a non-steroidal anti- inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium-sparing and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, when lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly, the patient should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets is obtained.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Lisinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide
Lisinopril in combination with hydrochlorothiazide was not mutagenic in a microbial mutagen test using Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test) or Escherichia coli with or without metabolic activation or in a forward mutation assay using Chinese hamster lung cells. Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide did not produce DNA single strand breaks in an in vitro alkaline elution rat hepatocyte assay. In addition, it did not produce increases in chromosomal aberrations in an in vitro test in Chinese hamster ovary cells or in an in vivo study in mouse bone marrow.

Lisinopril
There was no evidence of a tumorigenic effect when lisinopril was administered orally for 105 weeks to male and female rats at doses up to 90 mg/kg/day or for 92 weeks to male and female mice at doses up to 135 mg/kg/day. These doses are 10 times and 7 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human daily dose (MRHDD) when compared on a body surface area basis.
Lisinopril was not mutagenic in the Ames microbial mutagen test with or without metabolic activation. It was also negative in a forward mutation assay using Chinese hamster lung cells. Lisinopril did not produce single strand DNA breaks in an in vitro alkaline elution rat hepatocyte assay. In addition, lisinopril did not produce increases in chromosomal aberrations in an in vitro test in Chinese hamster ovary cells or in an in vivo study in mouse bone marrow.
There were no adverse effects on reproductive performance in male and female rats treated with up to 300 mg/kg/day of lisinopril (33 times the MRHDD when compared on a body surface area basis).

Hydrochlorothiazide
Two-year feeding studies in mice and rats conducted under the auspices of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) uncovered no evidence of a carcinogenic potential of hydrochlorothiazide in female mice at doses of up to approximately 600 mg/kg/day (53 times the MRHDD when compared on a body surface area basis) or in male and female rats at doses of up to approximately 100 mg/kg/day (18 times the MRHDD when compared on a body surface area basis). The NTP, however, found equivocal evidence for hepatocarcinogenicity in male mice.
Hydrochlorothiazide was not genotoxic in vitro in the Ames mutagenicity assay of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537, and TA 1538 and in the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) test for chromosomal aberrations, or in vivo in assays using mouse germinal cell chromosomes, Chinese hamster bone marrow chromosomes, and the Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal trait gene. Positive test results were obtained only in the in vitro CHO Sister Chromatid Exchange (clastogenicity) and in the Mouse Lymphoma Cell (mutagenicity) assays, using concentrations of hydrochlorothiazide from 43 to 1300 mcg/mL, and in the Aspergillus nidulans non-disjunction assay at an unspecified concentration.
Hydrochlorothiazide had no adverse effects on the fertility of mice and rats of either sex in studies wherein these species were exposed, via their diet, to doses of up to 100 and 4 mg/kg, respectively, prior to conception and throughout gestation. In mice and rats these doses are 9 times and 0.7 times, respectively, the MRHDD when compared on a body surface area basis.

Pregnancy
Pregnancy Categories C (first trimester) and D (second and third trimesters). See WARNINGS, Pregnancy, Lisinopril, Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality.

Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether lisinopril is secreted in human milk. However, milk of lactating rats contains radioactivity following administration of 14C lisinopril. In another study, lisinopril was present in rat milk at levels similar to plasma levels in the dams. Thiazides do appear in human milk. Because of the potential for serious reactions in nursing infants from ACE inhibitors and hydrochlorothiazide, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. In a multiple dose pharmacokinetic study in elderly versus young hypertensive patients using the lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide combination, area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) increased approximately 120% for lisinopril and approximately 80% for hydrochlorothiazide in older patients.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection. Evaluation of the hypertensive patient should always include assessment of renal function. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

7ADVERSE REACTIONS

Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets have been evaluated for safety in 930 patients, including 100 patients treated for 50 weeks or more.
In clinical trials with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets no adverse experiences peculiar to this combination drug have been observed. Adverse experiences that have occurred have been limited to those that have been previously reported with lisinopril or hydrochlorothiazide.
Adverse experiences occurring in greater than 1% of patients treated with lisinopril plus hydrochlorothiazide in controlled clinical trials are shown below.


Body as a Whole
Chest pain, abdominal pain, syncope, chest discomfort, fever, trauma, virus infection.
Cardiovascular
Palpitation, orthostatic hypotension.
Digestive
Gastrointestinal cramps, dry mouth, constipation, heartburn.
Musculoskeletal
Back pain, shoulder pain, knee pain, back strain, myalgia, foot pain.
Nervous/Psychiatric
Decreased libido, vertigo, depression, somnolence.
Respiratory
Common cold, nasal congestion, influenza, bronchitis, pharyngeal pain, dyspnea, pulmonary congestion, chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, pharyngeal discomfort.
Skin
Flushing, pruritus, skin inflammation, diaphoresis.
Special Senses
Blurred vision, tinnitus, otalgia.
Urogenital
Urinary tract infection.
Angioedema
Angioedema has been reported in patients receiving lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets, with an incidence higher in Black than in non-Black patients. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema may be fatal. If angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx occurs, treatment with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted immediately. In rare cases, intestinal angioedema has been reported with angio tensin-converting enzyme inhibitors including lisinopril. (See WARNINGS.)
Hypotension
In clinical trials, adverse effects relating to hypotension occurred as follows: hypotension (1.4), orthostatic hypotension (0.5), other orthostatic effects (3.2). In addition syncope occurred in 0.8% of patients. (See WARNINGS.)
Cough
See PRECAUTIONS,Cough

Clinical Laboratory Test Findings
Serum Electrolytes
See PRECAUTIONS.
Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen
Minor reversible increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were observed in patients with essential hypertension treated with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets. More marked increases have also been reported and were more likely to occur in patients with renal artery stenosis. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
Serum Uric Acid, Glucose, Magnesium, Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Calcium
See PRECAUTIONS.
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit
Small decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit (mean decreases of approximately 0.5 g% and 1.5 vol%, respectively) occurred frequently in hypertensive patients treated with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets but were rarely of clinical importance unless another cause of anemia coexisted. In clinical trials, 0.4% of patients discontinued therapy due to anemia.
Liver Function Tests
Rarely, elevations of liver enzymes and/or serum bilirubin have occurred (see WARNINGS, Hepatic Failure).
Other adverse reactions that have been reported with the individual components are listed below:

Lisinopril
In clinical trials adverse reactions which occurred with lisinopril were also seen with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide. In addition, and since lisinopril has been marketed, the following adverse reactions have been reported with lisinopril and should be considered potential adverse reactions for lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets:
Body as a Whole
Anaphylactoid reactions (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions), malaise, edema, facial edema, pain, pelvic pain, flank pain, chills.
Cardiovascular
Cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident, possibly secondary to excessive hypotension in high risk patients (see WARNINGS, Hypotension), pulmonary embolism and infarction, worsening of heart failure, arrhythmias (including tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, and premature ventricular contractions), angina pectoris, transient ischemic attacks, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, decreased blood pressure, peripheral edema, vasculitis.
Digestive
Pancreatitis, hepatitis (hepatocellular or cholestatic jaundice) (see WARNINGS, Hepatic Failure), gastritis, anorexia, flatulence, increased salivation.
Endocrine
Diabetes mellitus.
Hematologic
Metabolic
Gout, weight loss, dehydration, fluid overload, weight gain.
Musculoskeletal
Arthritis, arthralgia, neck pain, hip pain, joint pain, leg pain, arm pain, lumbago.
Nervous System/Psychiatric
Ataxia, memory impairment, tremor, insomnia, stroke, nervousness, confusion, peripheral neuropathy (e.g., paresthesia, dysesthesia), spasm, hypersomnia, irritability.
Respiratory
Malignant lung neoplasms, hemoptysis, pulmonary edema, pulmonary infiltrates, eosinophilic pneumonitis, bronchospasm, asthma, pleural effusion, pneumonia, wheezing, orthopnea, painful respiration, epistaxis, laryngitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, rhinorrhea, chest sound abnormalities.
Skin
Special Senses
Visual loss, diplopia, photophobia, taste disturbances.
Urogenital
Acute renal failure, oliguria, anuria, uremia, progressive azotemia, renal dysfunction (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), pyelonephritis, dysuria, breast pain.
Miscellaneous
A symptom complex has been reported which may include a positive ANA, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, arthralgia/arthritis, myalgia, fever, vasculitis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, photosensitivity, rash, and other dermatological manifestations.
Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality
See WARNINGS,Pregnancy, Lisinopril, Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality.

Hydrochlorothiazide
Body as a Whole
Weakness.
Digestive
Anorexia, gastric irritation, cramping, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), pancreatitis, sialadenitis, constipation.
Hematologic
Leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia.
Musculoskeletal
Muscle spasm.
Nervous System/Psychiatric
Restlessness.
Renal
Renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis (see WARNINGS).
Skin
Erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis, alopecia.
Special Senses
Xanthopsia.
Hypersensitivity
Purpura, photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions

8OVERDOSAGE

No specific information is available on the treatment of overdosage with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Therapy with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets should be discontinued and the patient observed closely. Suggested measures include induction of emesis and/or gastric lavage, and correction of dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and hypotension by established procedures.

9DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION

Lisinopril is an effective treatment of hypertension in once-daily doses of 10 to 80 mg, while hydrochlorothiazide is effective in doses of 12.5 to 50 mg. In clinical trials of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy using lisinopril doses of 10 to 80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide doses of 6.25 to 50 mg, the antihypertensive response rates generally increased with increasing dose of either component.
To minimize dose-independent side effects, it is usually appropriate to begin combination therapy only after a patient has failed to achieve the desired effect with monotherapy.
Dose Titration Guided by Clinical Effect
A patient whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled with either lisinopril or hydrochlorothiazide monotherapy may be switched to lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 10/12.5 mg or lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 20/12.5 mg. Further increases of either or both components could depend on clinical response. The hydrochlorothiazide dose should generally not be increased until 2-3 weeks have elapsed. Patients whose blood pressures are adequately controlled with 25 mg of daily hydrochlorothiazide, but who experience significant potassium loss with this regimen, may achieve similar or greater blood pressure control with less potassium loss if they are switched to lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets 10/12.5 mg. Dosage higher than lisinopril 80 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg should not be used.
Replacement Therapy
The combination may be substituted for the titrated individual components.
Use in Renal Impairment
The usual regimens of therapy with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets need not be adjusted as long as the patient's creatinine clearance is >30 mL/min/1.73m2 (serum creatinine approximatelymg/dL or 265 mcmol/L). In patients with more severe renal impairment, loop diuretics are preferred to thiazides, so lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets are not recommended (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid reactions during membrane exposure).

10HOW SUPPLIED

Lisinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets 10/12.5 mg are available for oral administration as pink, oval, unscored tablets, imprintedAPOon one side and10over12.5
Lisinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets 20/12.5 mg are available for oral administration as white to off-white, oval, unscored tablets, imprintedAPOon one side and20over12.5
Lisinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets 20/25 mg are available for oral administration as pink, oval, unscored tablets, imprintedAPOon one side and20over25
Store at 20to 25(68to 77[see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Protect from excessive light and humidity. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container [see USP].
APOTEX INC.
LISINOPRIL AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE TABLETS
10/12.5 mg, 20/12.5 mg and 20/25 mg
Manufactured by: Manufactured for:
Apotex Inc. Apotex Corp.
Toronto, Ontario Weston, Florida
Canada M9L 1T9 33326
Revised: April 2008
Rev. 4

11PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL SECTION

DRUG: Lisinopril and Hydrochlorthiazide
GENERIC: Lisinopril and Hydrochlorthiazide
DOSAGE: TABLET
ADMINSTRATION: ORAL
NDC: 49349-129-02
STRENGTH:20.25 mg
COLOR: pink
SHAPE: OVAL
SCORE: No score
SIZE: 10 mm
IMPRINT: 30
QTY: 30

MM3




MM4







LISINOPRIL AND HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE 
lisinopril and hydrochlorthiazide tablet
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:49349-129(NDC:60505-0207-3)
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
LISINOPRIL (LISINOPRIL) LISINOPRIL 20 mg
HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE (HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE) HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE 25 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE  
CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM  
MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
Product Characteristics
Color pink Score no score
Shape OVAL (TABLET) Size 10mm
Flavor Imprint Code APO;20;25
Contains     
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:49349-129-02 30 in 1 BLISTER PACK
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA076674 04/04/2011
Labeler - REMEDYREPACK INC. (829572556)

Revised: 04/2011
 
REMEDYREPACK INC.

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